Public Health Nutritional Perspectives for Athletes. Public health nutrition plays an important role in all aspects of people’s life without exception in the sports sector. Sportsmen must have adequate and balanced nutrition as they struggle to defend the Republic of Indonesia on the sports stage. The nutrition here should not be more or less.
The view of public health nutrition for sportsmen should not be half because if the diet is insufficient or more, it can result in cravings for the athletes themselves. Therefore, apart from the role of athletes, coaches, nutrition specialists, sports specialists and technical directors need to be involved. Athletes do have to be trained and train plus compete for the sake of defending the country, but their conditions must still be considered.
The Importance of Nutrition Factors for Athletes
Nutrition is one of the raw materials for energy for the body. Public Health Nutrition in the form of food is what enables humans to move and carry out free activities. The productive age of the athlete itself has a duration of 15 years – 18 years starting at the age of 17 years – 20 years. After the age of 34 years – 38 years, the athlete concerned will retire until the end. The following describes the important factors of nutrition for athletes:
Nutrition as Body Energy Issued
The food intake consumed by the athletes themselves is divided into 2 (two), namely: (1). food supply ; (2). non food intake. Talking about (1) meaningful food intake: not only 4 healthy and 5 perfect, but food that can be eaten and food that cannot be eaten plus the dosage that is allowed to be consumed and the amount that is not allowed to be consumed.
Meanwhile, talking about (2) Public Health Nutrition, non-food intake means: post-competition recovery and treatment, for example: (1) athletes are asked to soak in cold ice water; (2) warm up with light exercises and so on. This is done so that the athletes do not experience prolonged injury plus prevent exhaustion of energy when athletes are retired and elderly.
Nutrition as a Substitute for Body Energy Issued
Nutrition plays a role as the body’s energy calories used. When athletes train and train plus compete on the world stage, there are not a few calories needed to be expended, sometimes even come up short. This means that more energy calories are expended than energy consumed. Managers and coaches who coach athletes must apply strict nutrition concepts so that they are healthy and fit.
Healthy and fit condition means that the athlete is not overweight and does not experience thinness. Everything must be prepared to have the muscles to train, the energy to compete, and the skills to win the sports stage. Public Health Nutrition at a qualified and more than adequate capacity must be the motto declared by all stakeholders.
Nutrition as Energy Recovery for the Body That Is Issued
Athletes as they enter old age need to be given special attention by all stakeholders. This is important because not a few athletes who have exerted their abilities over 10 years during their active years, when entering retirement until old age become helpless and unable to move. Consumption of nutrition that is given should act as energy reserves in the future.
You can imagine the productive age of a sportsman over 15 years, but the athlete must exhaust himself beyond his own age. This can have bad consequences and cause disease. Public health nutrition is present in order to bridge an adequate physical plus food supply with old age in the future. Stakeholders need to sit together to think about the physical condition of athletes in the future, especially nutrition.
The food menu as an athlete nutrition
Nutrition plays an important role as a producer of calories, both energy as calories in and energy as calories out. The form of nutrition in a diet devoted to sportsmen must meet the general standards of 4 Healthy 5 Perfect. But this form is reset according to the field of sport that is taken and the ability of the athlete himself. For example: calorie intake for swim athletes is not the same as intake for basketball athletes.
Methods of public health nutrition for athletes of different sports fields they are involved in are not always the same. However, for the same sport it is projected to have the same dietary nutrition even though the athletes concerned have different physical and stamina. several effects or beneficial effects, namely:
Foods menu as carbohydrates
You shouldn’t consume too many carbohydrates. This aims to balance the body’s metabolism and prevent disease. Not only that, the consumption of snacks that contain high carbohydrate derivatives such as donuts, dumplings, bread, fried foods, etc. are also limited and strictly prohibited because they can damage the body’s fitness. .
Then how to create suitable carbohydrates for consumption? This is the duty and domain of sports players who must create their own public health nutrition formula. Or you can also learn from other countries that already have more advanced formulas or concepts. This is the time for national sports experts to learn and adapt to the level of needs and abilities of the athletes themselves.
The food menu as Vegetables
Vegetables – major should also be prepared as a nutritious food supply for sportsmen, ironically not all vegetables – major can be served. One of them is water spinach which is prohibited for consumption because it makes people who eat it feel tired and easily drowsy even though the rest lasts 8 hours. Even major vegetables must be strictly selected according to the calculations of the team and officials.
Food menu as side dishes
Selection of animal protein is important and absolutely necessary to maintain and meet the required energy calories. Side dishes in the form of fish protein and other animal proteins that are selected for public health nutrition must be free of cholesterol and free of preservatives. That is only limited to the original raw meat and it is not allowed to consume meat that is converted into artificial food.
Water and salt content are also considered in the selection of side dishes. Athletes are only required to be disciplined, obey, and obey the instructions given. How to cook raw meat is also considered carefully, all have procedures and mechanisms. It cannot be arbitrary and cannot be arbitrary because this is all for the interests of the sportsmen themselves. In the world of sports, the conditions for athletes cannot be equated with normal conditions.
Food Menu as Fruits
Fruits that are allowed and allowed in public health nutrition, especially in the world of sports, are fruits that contain high fiber and vitamins plus they do not interfere with stomach comfort. For example: Apples, Papaya, Mango, and Banana. But there are also criteria for fruits that are not allowed to be eaten by athletes, one of which is Durian.
It is not easy to implement a healthy life in the world of sports, there are many regulations regarding nutrition that must be obeyed and obeyed. But the fact is that it is. Scientific research on fruit nutrition for athletes is always changing over time. A good fruit not only has the criteria of High Vitamin but also has minerals.
Food Menu as Milk
Milk is one of the complementary elements that must be fulfilled. The criteria for milk and its presentation also have procedures. So it’s not just buying milk and it’s free to cook it. 5 perfect in public health nutrition as poured in the form of milk is one of the milestones in the body’s metabolism performance. In the content of milk there are already 4 Healthy, but excessive milk consumption can result in stomach upset.
Milk content is also measured in terms of mg, ml, vitamin levels, calorie levels, and others. The aim is that there must be nothing more and nothing less. Now it depends on the preparation and processing method. Public health nutrition must be regulated so that it is effective and efficient. Even if necessary, it does not close the opportunity to import milk and its raw materials from abroad.
Food Calories for Athletes
Providing nutrition and dietary supplements as a form of nutrition must have its own dosage. Public health nutrition cannot compare the behavior of athletes who work on sport A with athletes who work on sports B. This perspective occurs because one of them is a different type of exercise. Calories eaten and calories spent for Football athletes cannot be juxtaposed with badminton athletes.
That is why it is necessary to adapt to these different types of sports. This aspect clearly differs not too much if the sport is of the same type even though the stamina, physique and position are different. For example: Sports Football where one player plays as a defensive midfielder and one player plays as a goalkeeper. Even though they are different, they have the same type of exercise, so feed intake and calories must be the same.
Food Calories as a Health Diet
The term diet here is not the same as diet in general. Diet here plays a role as fitness, while diet normally acts as health. Even so, the concepts, methods, plus goals are almost the same, but in different ways. Food Calories as a Health Diet as a public health nutrition determines fitness. Without a health diet, it has the potential to hinder these players’ fast steps.
Let’s take the case of the Football Player Ronaldo. Because he could not regulate his body from excess food intake, it resulted in an unfit condition, plus he had to end his career as a world class player because he gained weight. It is necessary to have a diet that maintains Food Calories as a Health Diet. Leave the problem to experienced experts, then they will definitely give positive suggestions.
Food Calories as Energy Reserves.
The energy of sportsmen must have been drained a lot in carrying out their obligations to defend the State as athletes. Even so, there must still be energy storage in the human body which functions as an energy reserve. So, don’t waste all your energy because you will never know the benefits behind it all. Public health nutrition again plays an important role.
The energy reserves discussed here are not only present energy reserves for training and competition but also energy reserves in the future. Because all of the energy that is expended while still active is drained, automatically when you retire and enter old age you will become sluggish and powerless. Now, sports strategy policy makers need to create a concept that nurtures the athletes themselves.
Food Calories as a Food Supplement
Food calories also act as a food supplement, which means increasing your appetite, which initially decreases to normal again. And normal becomes stable. It should be noted that supplementation here is not a major factor but a temporary complement. Supplements as public health nutrition need to have a place but should not be used for too long and do not cause doping effects.
The use of food supplements must pay attention to the dosage used. Read the rules of use. As much as possible use food supplements that are natural and safe plus not those that are chemical based and cause an addictive effect. Try to explore why athletes consume food in a limited way even though the intake is not small. Does this problem occur in dietary factors or the athlete’s own factor?
Post-match recovery for Athletes
Recovery here means treatment, care, and healing which are packaged in the form of public health nutrition. It can be interpreted that sportsmen who are injured and non-injured while advancing on the world stage. Whatever the condition of the athlete concerned, still receive help based on regular procedures so that the recovery is ongoing.
The post-match recovery program must not be carried out carelessly, it must go through intensive procedures and supervision. Doctors, coaches, managers, officials and other technical teams must work together and coordinate for the health and physical conditions of these athletes. Handling should not be done partially but must be thorough. Post-match recovery for Athletes is divided into 2 parts:
Recovery of sportsmen who have been injured
Athletes who are injured either lightly or seriously injured are treated differently. Usually serious injuries receive special treatment so that their physical and health can return to normal. Public health nutrition is the main breakfast for the athlete concerned. Heavy recovery covers all aspects, namely: food aspects, psychological aspects, health aspects, nursing aspects, and physical aspects.
If the athlete is fully recovered, then his condition must be restored for a considerable duration. The athlete must also follow the medical team’s instructions so that recovery can be fast and short. But if the athlete concerned cannot be recovered or has a permanent disability, then psychological, mental and health recovery must be the main concern.
Recovering non-injured sportsmen
For the recovery of non-injured sportsmen, they do not experience any significant problems. Meaning, do not need to be taken to the hospital to be treated and so on, but sufficient non-technical care such as: (a) light exercise; (b) soaking in ice water; (c) adequate food supply; and (d) training holidays. This perspective is contained in public health nutrition to restore non-injury conditions.
The priority scale must start from the lowest scale to the highest scale. The administration of drugs and food must be selective, safe, and reliable based on the recommendations of the medical team. Athletes must also be willing to consume the drug based on the doctor’s team prescription. The form of training holiday for 3 days – 5 days is given as one of the achievement bonuses plus avoiding post-match boredom and the opportunity to gather with his family.
Obligations of sportsmen carried out before and after the competition
The definition of public health nutrition also includes non-food consumption. There must be education for sportsmen to compete fairly and sportily. This means that there are obligations that must be followed both before competing and after competing against the coach itself, the coach of the opposing team, the officials, the board of scribes, the referee, and other sports equipment.
The competition must be fair, impartial, measured and sportsmanship. Sportsmen in any sport are obliged to maintain this spirit as long as they compete in tournaments. If this is not done, then he may be subject to disqualification or being removed from the list of matches or entering into a criminal field for committing fraudulent practices. Obligations of sportsmen performed before and after the competition, namely:
Do not use doping
All sportsmen are strictly prohibited from using doping or stimulant drugs that can stimulate muscles and metabolism to exceed normal standards. It is strictly forbidden in public health nutrition because victory can only be won and achieved through rigorous training plus applying it in competitions and tournaments with other athletes. Using doping drugs can also have fatal consequences such as heart failure, kidney failure, and lead to death.
There are many cases of sports athletes who use doping. There needs to be a urine test before competing and a urine test again after competing. Regardless of who wins the competition, urine testing methods to detect the use of doping drugs among athletes need to be encouraged. This reason is because tournament organizers want fair, fair and sporting sports events.
Mutual respect for the opposing team
The opposing team who are competing against must be respected and respected both from the aspects of the national flag, athletes, coaches and officials. Public health nutrition education for non consumption must be enforced. Even if your opponent suffers a defeat, it must still be respected, should not be insulted, or humiliated.
One can see the case of a Barcelona FC soccer player named Charles Puyol who reprimanded one of his colleagues for over-celebrating after scoring a goal against the opposing team. Charles Puyol’s attitude to reprimand his colleague was justified because excessive euphoria with a mocking tone was not allowed. An attitude of winning does not mean jumawa, an attitude of defeat does not mean losers.
Respect each other for the competition
The match equipment is a sign of rules that are physically visible on the field starting from the highest position to the lowest position such as the match inspector, referee, jury, to cleaning officers must be respected and respected. Public health nutrition education for non-consumption for the competition equipment sector must be enforced.
The match device serves to make the match run clean and healthy. Acting as a match supervisor plus other devices provides safety and comfort. The match supervisor ensures that the athletes compete in a clean and sporting manner. Even though match supervisors come from different countries, they must be respected and respected.
It is prohibited to walk out unless certain urgent conditions.
Athletes are prohibited from taking unilateral walks out of the competition without the permission of the competition inspector or supervisor, except for certain urgent conditions, for example (1) the athlete concerned experiences sudden fainting; (2) was hit by a blow and made his body bleed, so it is necessary to receive help. Non-consumption education in the form of public health nutrition needs to be executed strictly.
In competing, a sporting moment also has ethics and manners that apply universally. The point of matter is not only the match but also the match process. If the athlete’s condition breaks his leg while competing in Judo, the competition needs to be stopped and the athlete in a severe condition needs to be taken to the hospital for help and treatment.
That is the review of Public Health Nutrition Perspectives for Athletes. This article can be used as a reference for health, especially Indonesian national sports. The revival of sports not only comes from the concept of exercise but also from adequate nutritional intake to maintain the fitness of sportsmen on the world stage. May be useful.